Subotica (Szabadka in Hungarian) is situated in the north of Vojvodina, Serbia, several kilometers South of Hungarian border. Before the First World War it belonged to the Habsburg Monarchy, later Austro-Hungarian Empire, and it was part of Hungary. When Subotica acquired the status of the free royal town in 1779, it was named after the Habsburg queen: Maria Theresiopolis. At that time it was still a village looking settlement. During the first half of the 19th century only a few buildings could be seen rising above the roofs of a small ground level village houses: there were baroque towers of three churches, baroque City Hall and only a very few private two-story houses.

After the Compromise of 1867, when Austro-Hungarian Empire was formed, Subotica took part in the intensive development of Hungary. The most important moment in the development of the town was the arrival of the railway line in 1869. This railway line allowed easier access to export markets for local commodities (mostly wheat). The growth of trade and possibility of cheap transport allowed very intensive development of the town. By the 1880’s the town became wealthy. Ground floor houses started to transform into two and three story rental buildings and palaces and in only three decades the whole settlement completely changed. The most intensive construction of the town started after 1880’s inviting many architects and engineers from other parts of Hungary like Ödön Lechner, Raichl Ferenc, Vágo brothers, Marcell Komor, Dezső Jakab, etc, and also allowing education of local architects. Influx of money caused the influx of people, ideas, aspirations and competitive spirit. Residential and rental houses in different historic styles were built in the most important streets of the town, and among them, the mansion of Simon Leović designed by Ödön Lechner and Gyula Pártos in 1893. The first truly Art Nouveau rental three story house was designed by Titus Mačković in 1899 for the owner Lajos Fazekas. In the same year the architect Ferenc Raichl constructed his two rental ground floor Art Nouveau houses (No 11 and 13 in Vase Stajića street). After this shy representation of the Art Nouveau style, the intensive construction of Art Nouveau buildings continued at the beginning of the 20th century. Some of the most important Art Nouveau buildings were built in Subotica in the early 20th century, like Great Synagogue, Town hall, Raichl palace, bank buildings and many other houses and palaces. Over 100 buildings were built in that period. Some of the very important Art Nouveau buildings were also erected on the shore of the lake Palić near Subotica: Water tower, Female bathhouse, Great Terrace and Conen villa.

The development of the town at the turn of the century brought the influences of different local European Art Nouveau styles to the provincial town of Subotica: Hungarian Secession, Vienna Secession, German Jugendstil, French and Belgian Art Nouveau and others, thus promoting the town’s multicultural spirit in creating a cosmopolitan atmosphere which is still present today.

Image artist function date
Komor Marcell architect 1868-1944
Jakab Dezső architect 1864-1932
Ferenc József Raichl architect 1869–1960
Titus Mačković architect 1851-1919
Salga Mátyás architect
Vágo József architect 1877-1947
Vágo Lászlo architect 1875-1933
Vadász Pál architect 1874-1944
Aczél painter, applied art 1876-1946
Csát Géza writer 1887-1919
Csincsák Elemér painter 1893-1944
Farkas Béla painter 1894-1941
Šandor Olah painter 1886-1996
Telcs Ede sculptor 1872-1948
Aleksandar Lifka moviemaker 1880 – 1952
Cover Author Description date Link
editor Boško Krstić Secesija u Subotici – A szecesszió Szabadkán

Književna zajednica Subotica – Kijárat kiadó ISBN: 86-83865-01-0, 963-9136-79-4
Kata Martinović Cvijin Subotički opus Ferenca J. Rajhla

Likovni susret, NIO Subotičke novine
Bela Duranci Arhitektura secesije u Vojvodini

Grafoprodukt ISBN: 86-83135-21-7
Kata Martinović Cvijin ubotički opus Komora i Jakaba

NIO Subotičke novine
Boško Krstić Gradska kuća subotičko čudo

Boško Krstić ISBN: 86-901681-3-3
editor Gordana P. Vujnović Gradska kuća 1912 Subotica - Városháza 2012 Szabadka

Međuopštinski zavod za zaštitu spomenika kulture ISBN: 978-86-84781-18-7
Gordana P. Vujnović, Viktorija Aldžić, Mirko Grlica Gradotvorci I - Subotički stambeni objekti od baroka do moderne

Gradski muzej ISBN: 869041854-7
Gordana P. Vujnović, Viktorija Aldžić, Mirko Grlica Gradotvorci II - Subotički stambeni objekti od baroka do moderne

Gradski muzej ISBN: 868582902-X
Tibor Gajdos Szabadka képzőművészete

Életje ISBN: 86-82147-09-2
László Magyar, Henrik Acél, Zoltán Dér Henrik Acél Szabadkán: levéltári dokumentumok

Szabadegyetem ISBN: 8682147017, 9788682147015
Branka Kulić, Kata Martinović – Cvijin, ed. Hans-Dieter Dyroff Art nouveau style in Yugoslavia

German Commission for UNESCO
Viktorija Aldžić, ed. Csenkey, E., Steinert, A. Hungarian Ceramics from the Zsolnay Manufactory 1853-2001 - Zsolnay Ceramics in the Civil Architecture of Szabadka (Subotica)

p. 217 - 222, Yale University Press ISBN: 0-300-09704-2
Viktorija Aldžić, ed. Ljubica Milović Ideologije i ideali – prilozi istraživanju arhitekture 20. veka u Vojvodini, Nove ideje na pragu novog veka – arhitektura secesije u Subotici

Muzej savremene umetnosti Vojvodine ISBN: 978-86-84773-71-7
Ana Baranji ed. Slobodan S. Sanader, Miodrag Đorđević Slikarstvo u Vojvodini 1900 - 1944, Slikarstvo u Subotici 1900 - 1944

Galerija savremene likovne umetnosti
ed. Saša Erdeljanović Lifka i Lifke

Otvoreni univerzitet, Jugoslovenska kinoteka ISBN: 978-86-87613-26-3
Mirko Grlica Svetlo u tami – 100 godina bioskopa Lifka u Subotici – Fény a sötétségben – A Lifka mozi 100 éve Szabadkán

Gradski muzej Subotica ISBN: 978-86-85829-29-1
Vujnović P., Gordana, Leovics Simon palotája, Szabadka, Lenjinov park Lechner Ödön - az épitészet mesterei

Holnap Kiado Kft. ISBN: 963 346 611-3
Korhec Papp Zsuzsana Vitrázsok a Vajdaságban – Vitraži u Vojvodini – Glasgemälde in der Vojvodina

Gradski muzej Subotica ISBN: 978-86-85-829-18-5
Vladimir Mitrović Arhitektura XX veka u Vojvodini

Muzej savremene umetnosti Vojvodine ISBN: 978-86-84773-69-4
Bela Duranci (title in the local language) Nađbanja i Vojvođani: sto godina Umetničke kolonije

Likovni susret ISBN: 8632304615, 9788632304611
Olga Kovačev Ninkov, Ljubica Vuković Dulić Art Nouveau in Subotica’s Public Collections

Subotica: Municipal Museum of Subotica
Gordana P. Vujnović Ferenc Rajhl – Raichl Ferenc

Béla Dusha, Gordana P. Vujnović, Attila Tóth Gems of th Turn of the Century – Adventures in the magic world of Art Nouveau in Subotica

Szeged and Senta, Szeged
Network News Subotica

It took not even two full years for architects Marcell Komor and Dezső Jakab to build a Synagogue in Subotica (1902-1903), and almost fifty for restoration to its original appearance. But finally, on January 20th 2019, after a long period of conservation and restoration, Subotica Synagogue was opened for visitors, and anyone who comes to… Read more »